He may well have been thinking about the great Austrian-Swiss theoretical physicist Wolfgang Pauli April 25, —December 15, , who first postulated the neutrino and was awarded the Nobel Prize for his discovery of the Pauli exclusion principle — a monumental leap in our understanding of the structure of matter. It greatly impressed the elder physicist, who wrote in astonishment: No one studying this mature, grandly conceived work could believe that the author is a man of One wonders what to admire most, the psychological understanding for the development of ideas, the sureness of mathematical deduction, the profound physical insight, the capacity for lucid systematic presentation, the complete treatment of the subject matter, or the sureness of critical appraisal. Indeed, this uncommon fusion of psychological acumen and scientific rigor only intensified as Pauli grew older. Each used the tools of his expertise to shift the shoreline between the known and the unknown, and together they found common ground in the analogy between the atom, with its nucleus and orbiting electrons, and the self, with its central conscious ego and its ambient unconscious. Both men were deeply imprinted by this intellectual cross-pollination.
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Wolfgang Pauli was a most critical theoretical physicist with profound insight as well as a deep thinker. In very young age he demonstrated his brilliant characteristics when in he handed a manuscript on the theory of relativity, which was published by the Enzyklopadie mathematischen der Wissenschaften, generating in Albert Einstein the following comment: Who ever studies this mature and grandly composed word would not believe that the author is a man of twenty-one.
One does not know what to admire moste: the psychological understanding of the evolution of ideas, the accuracy of the mathematical deduction, the deep physical insight, the capacity for lucid systematic presentation, the knowledge of literature, the factual completeness or the infallibility of criticism.
Together with Bohr, Heisenberg and Dirac, Wolfgang Pauli was on of the principal creators of quantum mechanics and soon he became renowned for his fundamental original contribution on quantum field theory and for his role of living conscience of theoretical physics. But the rational one-sidedness of the young Pauli received a strong blow in his early thirties, a crisis that he later described as his big neurosis.
Together with stern strokes of fate —suicide of his mother, — divorce from his first wife , it was basically his excessively rational attitude which brought him into serious inner conflicts which he could not master intellectually.
Following the advice of his father he asked the psychologist Carl Gustav Jung for help. Suddenly Jung recognized the outstanding scientific training and intellectual capability of Pauli. Jung used dreams out of this material for his Eranos lecture. Pauli finished his analysis in and married again in the same year. Nevertheless, Jung found his dreams so important that he asked Pauli to continue recording and interpreting his dreams and to stay in contact with him.
When the Second World War began, he was not yet a Swiss citizen and got leave-of-absence in order to join the Institute for Advanced Studies in Princeton. For five years he was in contact with Einstein, Kurt Godel and Bertrand Russel and in Pauli received the Nobel prize for the exclusion principle. One year later he returned to Zurich and stayed there for the rest of his life, until He was interested in those phenomena which elude the grasp of reason and in exploring the meaning of the scientific enterprise in general.
Pauli was a compulsive writer, seemingly unable to think without a pen in his hand. He never published his ideas as quickly as possible but preferred to communicate his thoughts in long letters to his friends and colleagues, trying out new ideas. The often colloquial and sometimes speculative style of his letters is in striking contrast to his cautious and refined publications.
General aspects of the Jung-Pauli dialogue Readers of C. This collection of letters between Jung and Pauli offers insightful information about a relationship that was valuable for both analytical psychology and quantum physics, two realms of investigation that at first seem to have no point of contact. And how effective exchange between each other disciplines of the two scientists has really taken place, is clear from two separate positions resulting from their publications: As the phenomenal world is an aggregate of the processes of atomic magnitude, it is naturally of the greatest importance to find out whether, and if so how, the photons shall we say enable us to gain a definite knowledge of the reality underlying the meditative energy processes.
Light and matter both behave like separate particles and also like waves. Jung] Division and reduction of symmetry, this then the kernel of the brute! The former is an ancient attribute of the devil. If only the two divine contenders—Christ and the devil—could notice that they have grown so much more symmetrical! Pauli] The psychology of the unconscious and modern quantum physics introduced independently new concepts in a remarkable and peculiarly coincident manner.
The corresponding relations between the two fields formed the ore of the Jung-Pauli dialogue. Unlike most of his fellow-physicists, Pauli tried to interpret the scientific revolution — introduced by the relativity theory and quantum theory — not only from a philosophical perspective but also from a psychological one. And unlike most psychologists, Jung seriously looked for an objective basis that modern physics might provide for his model of the psyche.
From a general point of view, the key-topic of the Jung-Pauli dialogue was the problem of psycho-physical relationships. From the viewpoint of the natural sciences, one might be tempted to speak of relationships between psyche and matter, across the Cartesiam cut between the two. The articles they published together in the volume The Interpretation of Nature and the Psyche Naturerklarung und Psyche — Jung and Pauli illustrate both their agreement and their differences pragmatically.
Pauli lived in a permanent state of tension with the technical world and he was notoriously clumsy with experimental tools. It is reported that his very presence in the vicinity of the laboratory was sufficient to cause the breakdown of experimental equipment in most inexplicable ways. The goal of this study was to explore the role of unconscious in the development of science.
Pauli intended to show how inner images initiate and guide the process of the formation of the scientific theory. Notes on synchronicity The definition of synchronicity, as developed by Jung in agreement with the comments and the positions of Pauli, is the following: Two or more events seemingly accidental, but not necessarily simultaneously, are called synchronistic if the following conditions are met: Any presumption of a causal relationship between the events is absurd or even inconceivable; The events correspond with one another by a common meaning, often expressed symbolically; Each pair of synchronistic events contains an internally produced and an externally perceived component.
Particularly the last one of these criteria makes clear that synchronistic phenomena are psycho-physical phenomena, and that they are intractable by any science dealing with psyche or matter alone.
The first criterion indicates a central principle of traditional science which has to be re-evaluated if synchronistic phenomena are to be studied: causality in the narrow sense of cause-and-effect relation.
The second criterion suggests the concept of meaning as a constructive perspective into this direction. Since synchronistic phenomena are not necessarily simultaneous, synchronicity is a somewhat misleading term. For this reason Pauli preferred to speak of meaningful correspondences Sinnkorrespondenzen under the influence of an archetypal acausal ordering.
In agreement with this, the concept of the case referred to seemingly random events could also be interpreted in terms of meaningful correspondences. The principle of synchronicity assumes that the indestructible energy has a dual relationship with the space-time continuum: on the one hand, there is the constant connection through the effect causality and on the other there is a fickle connection through the contingency, equivalence or sense, synchronicity.
Synchronistic events are erratic, sporadic and arbitrary because they are dependent on an archetypal situation enabled in the observer. It is evident that the synchronicity, as understood by Jung, could not be defined in the usual sense of physical science since it only makes sense at the moment when an individual lives the experience and therefore not reproducible as such.
It is one of those phenomena that flutter beyond the limits imposed by science. In the book published with Pauli, Jung presents an analogy of synchronicity through the ancient experience of the chinese I-Ching. Well, how could a so little scientific phenomenon interest and stimulate the mind of a scientist as Pauli? This is the synchronicity: when present, it is present, you can discuss it for long time and speculate on its structure, however, the manner of approach and study are exactly the same of modern quantum physics.
And Pauli guessed that right away: a bridge between matter and psyche. Synchronicity knocked down a fundamental physical principle: the principle of locality. This principle states that physical processes may not have immediate effect on the physical elements of reality at another location, separate from the one in which they occur. Instead, synchronicity represents a real phenomenon, non-local.
According to Jung and Pauli, the phenomenon of synchronicity brought physics and psychology closer, showing a deep connection between the various events of the world, not tied to a direct causal-mechanical action. Matter and Psyche: Two Aspects of the One Reality Pauli and Jung agreed that matter and psyche should be understood as complementary aspects of the same reality, which is governed by common ordering principles: the archetypes.
This implies that the archetypes are elements of a realm beyond matter and psyche. Pauli long insisted on the fact that in the future, scientists could no longer ignore the relationship between knowledge of the material world outside and the inner world of the psyche.
It was necessary to recognize that the rational scientific approach was only a way to see and interpret the world; another approach — complementary to the previous — implied that subsequent research on the reality could no longer be conducted by separating matter and psyche, but that both sides were to enter into a process of joint research. In a perspective that includes human dignity and respect for nature, the ethical and religious could no longer be left aside as secondary aspects.
Jung — The Tavistock Lectures C. Pauli — Letter to Jung of 27 may — in: Meier C. Jung — Letter to Pauli of 29 june — in:Meier C. Jung — Lettera a Pauli del 4 maggio — in: Meier W. Pauli — Psiche e Natura — Adelphi
Synchronicity: the encounter between the psychoanalyst Jung and the physicist Pauli
Jung and the famous astronomer Kepler were both intuitive thinkers and empiric scientists with strong mystic tendencies. Pauli was a famous particle physicist, who collaborated with C. Jung on the concept synchronicity. Jung did. Kepler, Pauli and Jung were trailblazers in their own disciplines as well as in the realm of collaboration across disciplines. Their similar approach as scientist or physician and the concept of synchronicity and archetype form a triangle.
Wolfgang Pauli was a most critical theoretical physicist with profound insight as well as a deep thinker. In very young age he demonstrated his brilliant characteristics when in he handed a manuscript on the theory of relativity, which was published by the Enzyklopadie mathematischen der Wissenschaften, generating in Albert Einstein the following comment: Who ever studies this mature and grandly composed word would not believe that the author is a man of twenty-one. One does not know what to admire moste: the psychological understanding of the evolution of ideas, the accuracy of the mathematical deduction, the deep physical insight, the capacity for lucid systematic presentation, the knowledge of literature, the factual completeness or the infallibility of criticism. Together with Bohr, Heisenberg and Dirac, Wolfgang Pauli was on of the principal creators of quantum mechanics and soon he became renowned for his fundamental original contribution on quantum field theory and for his role of living conscience of theoretical physics. But the rational one-sidedness of the young Pauli received a strong blow in his early thirties, a crisis that he later described as his big neurosis. Together with stern strokes of fate —suicide of his mother, — divorce from his first wife , it was basically his excessively rational attitude which brought him into serious inner conflicts which he could not master intellectually.