Transmissible gastroenteritis TGE Control and Prevention of Coccidiosis in Pigs A good level of hygiene in farrowing accommodation is necessary to minimize the spread of infection, and bedding should be destroyed and huts moved between litters. Disinfection can be used although available disinfectants are not particularly effective in combating I. Your veterinarian can provide advice on agents to combat the oocysts. Rodents also represent a potential means of spreading infection, and should be controlled Straw et al.
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Disease guide Background and history Coccidiosis is caused by small parasites called coccidia that live and multiply inside the host cells, mainly in the intestinal tract. There are three types, Eimeria, Isospora and Cryptosporidia. Disease is common and widespread in sucking piglets and occasionally in pigs up to 15 weeks of age. Diarrhoea is the main clinical sign. The life cycle Tiny-egg like infected structures called oocysts are passed out in the faeces into the environment where they develop sporulate.
Oocysts can survive outside the pig for many months and are very difficult to kill. The oocysts are eaten and undergo three complex developments in the wall of the small intestine to complete the cycle.
It is during this period that damage occurs. Sows faeces are one source of infection and it is important that they are removed daily from the farrowing house. The life cycle in the piglet takes days and disease therefore is not seen before five days of age. Clinical signs Coccidiosis causes diarrhoea in piglets due to damage caused to the wall of the small intestine. This is followed by secondary bacterial infections. Dehydration is common. The faeces vary in consistency and colour from yellow to grey green, or bloody according to the severity of the condition.
Secondary infection by bacteria and viruses can also result in high mortality, although mortality due to coccidiosis on its own is relatively low. Occasionally disease is seen in young boars and gilts that are housed in permanently populated pens and floor fed. Diagnosis Coccidiosis should be suspected if there is a diarrhoea problem in sucking pigs from days of age that does not respond particularly well to antibiotics.
Diagnosis however is not easy in some outbreaks because identifying oocysts in the faeces of infected pigs can be difficult. In other outbreaks however clear signs are evident at post-mortem examinations. The oocysts do not pass out into the faeces until approximately days after diarrhoea is seen, by which time the pig may have recovered. Faeces samples for laboratory examination should be taken from semi-recovered pigs rather than pigs with scour.
Diagnosis is best made by submitting a live pig to the laboratory for histological examination of the intestinal wall. Isospora suis is the most pathogenic of the three types of coccidia. Causes Small parasites called coccidia that live and multiply inside the host cells, mainly in the intestinal tract. Pig faeces are one source of infection and it is important that it is removed daily from housing. Prevention Once the oocysts have become established in an environment the sow plays only a minor role.
The oocysts contaminate the environment by other means such as flies, dried faeces, dust and faeces contaminated surfaces. Hygiene and insect control are important. Remove sow and piglet faeces daily. Improve the hygiene in farrowing houses, in particular farrowing pen floors and prevent the movement of faeces from one pen to another. Ensure as far as possible that slurry channels are completely emptied between farrowings. If farrowing crate floor surfaces are made of concrete and pitted, brush these over with lime wash and allow it to dry before the next sow comes into farrow.
See chapter Keep pens as dry as possible and in particular those areas of the floor where the piglets defecate. An effective method is to cover the wet areas with shavings and remove them daily.
If creep is fed on the floor stop creep feeding until piglets are at least 21 days old. Control flies. See later in this chapter In outdoor herds control can be difficult. Always move farrowing arcs to new ground between farrowings and burn bedding. Wallows can be an ideal focus of infection particularly during lactation.
Increase the amount of shade and provide sprays. Provide alternating wallows. Site wallows well away from the source of food. Treatment For this to be effective it must be given just prior to the invasion of the intestinal wall. Once clinical signs have appeared the damage has been done. Feed from the time the sow enters the farrowing house and throughout lactation. Inject each litter with a long-acting sulphonamide at six days of age.
Medicate small amounts of milk powder with a coccidiostat such as amprolium or salinomycin and give small amounts daily to the piglets from three days of age onwards top dressed on the creep feed. One or two doses of toltrazuril at a level of 6. It is prepared by mixing ml of glycerol, ml water and ml of Baycox together. A 2ml dose may be given once at 4, 5 or 6 days of age, the exact time determined by the response, and repeated again at ten days of age.
If there is no response it is unlikely that coccidiosis is the problem. Specifically discuss this method of treatment with your veterinarian who may prepare this for you.
Coccidiosis in swine: dose and age response to Isospora suis.
Coccidiosis occurs in all countries where confinement rearing and continuous farrowing are practiced. Although several coccidia of the genus Eimeria commonly infect one to three month old swine, clinical disease rarely occurs. Coccidiosis assumed greater importance with the introduction of confinement-rearing, continuous farrowing in warm buildings, and use of farrowing crates. Coccidiosis has re-emerged as a common cause of neonatal diarrhea, even in modern well-managed farms. This is within the range maintained in many confinement farrowing facilities.
Disease guide Background and history Coccidiosis is caused by small parasites called coccidia that live and multiply inside the host cells, mainly in the intestinal tract. There are three types, Eimeria, Isospora and Cryptosporidia. Disease is common and widespread in sucking piglets and occasionally in pigs up to 15 weeks of age. Diarrhoea is the main clinical sign. The life cycle Tiny-egg like infected structures called oocysts are passed out in the faeces into the environment where they develop sporulate. Oocysts can survive outside the pig for many months and are very difficult to kill.
Coccidiosis (Coccidia parasites)