GEORGE RITZER GLOBALIZATION THE ESSENTIALS PDF

Ashley Crossman Updated January 28, McDonaldization is a concept developed by American sociologist George Ritzer which refers to the particular kind of rationalization of production, work, and consumption that rose to prominence in the late twentieth century. The basic idea is that these elements have been adapted based on the characteristics of a fast-food restaurant—efficiency, calculability, predictability and standardization, and control—and that this adaptation has ripple effects throughout all aspects of society. Since that time the concept has become central within the field of sociology and especially within the sociology of globalization. According to Ritzer, the McDonaldization of society is a phenomenon that occurs when society, its institutions, and its organizations are adapted to have the same characteristics that are found in fast-food chains.

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Ashley Crossman Updated January 28, McDonaldization is a concept developed by American sociologist George Ritzer which refers to the particular kind of rationalization of production, work, and consumption that rose to prominence in the late twentieth century.

The basic idea is that these elements have been adapted based on the characteristics of a fast-food restaurant—efficiency, calculability, predictability and standardization, and control—and that this adaptation has ripple effects throughout all aspects of society. Since that time the concept has become central within the field of sociology and especially within the sociology of globalization.

According to Ritzer, the McDonaldization of society is a phenomenon that occurs when society, its institutions, and its organizations are adapted to have the same characteristics that are found in fast-food chains. These include efficiency, calculability, predictability and standardization, and control. According to Weber, the modern bureaucracy was defined by hierarchical roles, compartmentalized knowledge and roles, a perceived merit-based system of employment and advancement, and the legal-rationality authority of the rule of law.

These characteristics could be observed and still can be throughout many aspects of societies around the world. As he explains in his book of the same name, this new economic and social order is defined by four key aspects. Finally, control within McDonaldization is wielded by the management to ensure that workers appear and act the same on a moment-to-moment and daily basis. It also refers to the use of robots and technology to reduce or replace human employees wherever possible. Ritzer asserts that these characteristics are not only observable in production, work, and in the consumer experience , but that their defining presence in these areas extends as ripple effects through all aspects of social life.

McDonaldization affects our values, preferences, goals, and worldviews, our identities, and our social relationships. Further, sociologists recognize that McDonaldization is a global phenomenon, driven by Western corporations, the economic power and cultural dominance of the West, and as such it leads to a global homogenization of economic and social life.

The Downside of McDonaldization After laying out how McDonaldization works in the book, Ritzer explains that this narrow focus on rationality actually produces irrationality.

He observed, "Most specifically, irrationality means that rational systems are unreasonable systems. By that, I mean that they deny the basic humanity, the human reason, of the people who work within or are served by them.

Those that work under these conditions often experience them as dehumanizing as well. This is because McDonaldization does not require a skilled workforce. Focusing on the four key characteristics that produce McDonaldization has eliminated the need for skilled workers. Workers in these conditions engage in repetitive, routinized, highly focused and compartmentalized tasks that are quickly and cheaply taught, and thus easy to replace. Meanwhile in China, workers who produced iPhones and iPads face similar conditions and struggles.

The characteristics of McDonaldization have crept into the consumer experience too, with free consumer labor folded into the production process. Dutifully follow the instructions to assemble Ikea furniture? Pick your own apples, pumpkins, or blueberries?

Check yourself out at the grocery store? Then you have been socialized to complete the production or distribution process for free, thus aiding a company in achieving efficiency and control. Sociologists observe the characteristics of McDonaldization in other areas of life, like education and media too, with a clear shift from quality to quantifiable measures over time, standardization and efficiency playing significant roles in both, and control too.

Look around, and you will be surprised to find that you will notice the impacts of McDonaldization throughout your life.

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Essentials of Sociology

Drawing on Weber idea of rationalization, Ritzer contends that by the end of the 20th century the principles of fast food restaurants have come to be exported to many other sectors of our everyday life, thus resulting in a process of homogenization. These principles amount to 5: efficienty, calculability, predictability, control through substitution of technology for people and the irrationality of rationality. Efficiency — the need to find the best means for obtaining the end-product. This implies a set of rigid rules, procedures and protocols that both employees and customers must abide by. Even the interaction between the two sides is done on a pre-established protocol. Calculability — quantity is regarded as being more important than quality.

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McDonaldization: Definition and Overview of the Concept

Globalization: The Essentials explores the flows, structures, processes, and consequences of globalization in the modern economic, political, and A concise exploration of globalization and its role in the contemporary era Driven by technological advancements and global corporations, more and more people are swept up by globalizing processes, creating new winners and losers. Globalization: The Essentials explores the flows, structures, processes, and consequences of globalization in the modern economic, political, and cultural landscape. This comprehensive introduction offers balanced coverage of areas such as global economic and cultural flows, environmental sustainability, the impact of technology, and racial, economic, and gender inequality -- providing readers with foundational knowledge of globalization. Examples of current research and recent global developments, such as emerging economies and global health concerns, encourage classroom discussion and promote independent study. Offering a multidisciplinary approach, this textbook is an invaluable primary or supplemental resource for undergraduate study in any social science field, as well as coursework on economics, migration, inequality and stratification, and politics.

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