EMPOASCA KRAEMERI PDF

On papaya, feeding by heavy densities of this pest causes a phytotoxic reaction called hopperburn. This results from proteins or other foreign substances secreted by the insect into plant tissues during feeding. Symptoms of phytotoxemia include tip burn, wrinkling and cupping of leaves, marginal burning and stunting of smaller plants. Some observations have shown that younger plants are more susceptible to injury than older plants. Infested papaya leaves may abscise prematurely as a result of nymphal and adult feeding. Hopperburn symptoms also occur on plumeria, the preferred host of the Stevens leafhopper.

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On papaya, feeding by heavy densities of this pest causes a phytotoxic reaction called hopperburn. This results from proteins or other foreign substances secreted by the insect into plant tissues during feeding.

Symptoms of phytotoxemia include tip burn, wrinkling and cupping of leaves, marginal burning and stunting of smaller plants. Some observations have shown that younger plants are more susceptible to injury than older plants.

Infested papaya leaves may abscise prematurely as a result of nymphal and adult feeding. Hopperburn symptoms also occur on plumeria, the preferred host of the Stevens leafhopper. This type of feeding damage is characterized by wrinkling of leaves and marginal burning.

In severe cases, premature defoliation occurs. Like other leafhoppers, the Stevens leafhopper can vector in the transmission of plant diseases. While bunchy top disease of papaya does not occur in Hawaii, Empoasca leafhoppers have been shown to vector this disease in Trinidad Haque, The causal organism of this disease is thought to be a mycoplasma-like organism carried by the leafhopper.

Life cycle duration of the Stevens leafhopper egg to adult is days Ebesu, The duration of developmental stages is greatly influenced by ambient temperature and host and less so by relative humidity. They are usually inserted into the veins on the underside of the leaves. Females prefer to oviposit in transparent, developing leaves and young fully expanded leaves. Hatching occurs in 7 to 14 days Ebesu, The first stage nymphs are translucent with dark reddish brown eyes.

The second stage nymphs are light green in color and have white eyes with a dark marking at the center. Wing pads, or developing wings, become visible on the third stage nymphs. The remaining 2 nymphal stages are similar in appearance, except for a slight darkening in color and an increase in the length of the wing pads.

Nymphs generally remain on the leaf from which they emerged. Duration for the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, and 5th nymphal stages respectfully are 2, 2, 2, , and days, based on laboratory rearing on papaya and cowpea Ebesu, The entire nymphal period requires days.

When folded over the abdomen, the wings have an orange hue. Virgin females reared on cowpea lived weeks, and mated females lived weeks on cowpea and papaya Ebesu, Following a 6 to 8 day preoviposition period, females lay an average of eggs per week for about 4 weeks Ebesu, This pest builds up to damaging numbers somewhat infrequently and damaging populations have not been reported to be widespread in growing areas.

This suggests that farm practices by individual growers may greatly determine whether pest density grows to damaging levels. This suggests that the pest is relatively sensitive to registered insecticides. There are no listings for Ebesu, Trigard, and Avid as of April Notes and Exhibitions. Hawaii Entomol. Ebesu, R. University of Hawaii, Department of Entomology. Haque, S. Plant Dis.

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Empoasca kraemeri

Daos: Son ocasionados por las ninfas y adultos, que pican y succionan la savia de las clulas en el envs de las hojas, originado puntitos o pequeas manchas, que son notorias en el haz de las hojas. El dao principal directo es el encrespamiento de la hojas con los bordes hacia abajo, las plantas infestadas retrasan su crecimiento y desarrollo, se amarillan y se debilitan, son considerados como trasmisores de virus. Biologa: Las cigarritas adultas son verdes, las ninfas son Amarillo verdosas. Los adultos saltan y vuelan a gran velocidad al ser molestados.

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