It is widely available outside the U. Vital Energy Corp It can be used as an alternative to Jet A-1 but because it is more difficult to handle higher flammabilitythere is only significant demand in very cold climates where its better cold weather performance is important. Anti-icing additives can also some protection against microbiological growth in jet fuel. Corrosion inhibitors protect ferrous metals in fuel handling sfan, such as pipelines and fuel storage tanks, from corrosion. Aviation Jet Fuel Information.
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Outside former communist areas, there are currently two main grades of turbine fuel in use in civil commercial aviation : Jet A-1 and Jet A, both are kerosene type fuels. There is another grade of jet fuel, Jet B which is a wide cut kerosene a blend of gasoline and kerosene but it is rarely used except in very cold climates. It is widely available outside the U.
It can be used as an alternative to Jet A-1 but because it is more difficult to handle higher flammability , there is only significant demand in very cold climates where its better cold weather performance is important. JP-5 JP-5 is a high flash point kerosene meeting the requirements of the U. JP-8 JP-8 is the military equivalent of Jet A-1 with the addition of corrosion inhibitor and anti-icing additives; it meets the requirements of the U. The quantity to be added and approval for its use in various grades of fuel is strictly controlled by the appropriate specifications.
A few additives in common use are as follows: 1. Anti-knock additives reduce the tendency of gasoline to detonate. Tetra-ethyl lead TEL is the only approved anti-knock additive for aviation use and has been used in motor and aviation gasolines since the early s. Anti-oxidants prevent the formation of gum deposits on fuel system components caused by oxidation of the fuel in storage and also inhibit the formation of peroxide compounds in certain jet fuels.
Static dissipater additives reduce the hazardous effects of static electricity generated by movement of fuel through modern high flow-rate fuel transfer systems. Corrosion inhibitors protect ferrous metals in fuel handling systems, such as pipelines and fuel storage tanks, from corrosion. Some corrosion inhibitors also improve the lubricating properties lubricity of certain jet fuels.
Fuel System Icing Inhibitors Anti-icing additives reduce the freezing point of water precipitated from jet fuels due to cooling at high altitudes and prevent the formation of ice crystals which restrict the flow of fuel to the engine. This type of additive does not affect the freezing point of the fuel itself. Anti-icing additives can also provide some protection against microbiological growth in jet fuel.
Metal de-activators suppress the catalytic effect which some metals, particularly copper, have on fuel oxidation. Biocide additives are sometimes used to combat microbiological growths in jet fuel, often by direct addition to aircraft tanks; as indicated above some anti-icing additives appear to possess biocidal properties. Similar injection systems are also incorporated in some turbo-jet and turbo-prop engines. The power increase is achieved by cooling the air consumed, to raise its density and thereby increase the weight of air available for combustion.
This effect can be obtained by using water alone but it is usual to inject a mixture of methanol and water to produce a greater degree of evaporative cooling and also to provide additional fuel energy. Use of a corrosion inhibitor in power boost fluids supplied for these engines is not permitted. The methanol and water used must be of very high quality to avoid formation of engine deposits. The water must be either demineralised or distilled and the only adulterant permitted in the methanol is up to 0.
Def Stan 91-91 Issue 7
Military Jet Fuel
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