CANINE DYSTOCIA PDF

Note the malpositioned fetus oriented transversely to the pelvic canal. Radiographs courtesy of Amanda A. Note the malpositioned fetus oriented transversely to the pelvic canal with forelimbs extending into the canal. Figure 1 Ventrodorsal abdominal radiograph of a pregnant bitch presenting for dystocia. If the bitch is examined after day 44 of gestation, when fetal skeletons mineralize, radiographs should be obtained to determine litter size, fetal positioning, and signs of fetal death.

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Symptoms of Dystocia in Dogs The symptoms depend on the cause of the dystocia, but the most common are: Labor starts less than 56 days after conception Labor has not started after 70 days Bloody discharge Green or black discharge for several hours without delivering Vomiting Strong contractions for more than an hour without delivering Fetus trapped in the birth canal Straining more than two hours without delivering Longer than five hours between delivering puppies Fever higher than degrees Fahrenheit You will need to explain over the phone what is going on so they can tell you whether you should take care of it yourself or bring her to the clinic.

In most cases, the veterinarian will tell you to come in because they are usually against telling untrained people to do procedures over the phone.

A physical examination will be done, including abdominal palpation, body temperature, blood pressure, weight, pupil reaction time, reflexes, respiratory rate, pulse, and breath sounds.

The veterinarian will also do a thorough examination of the birth canal to check for any obvious signs of the problem. Abdominal radiographs x-rays and an ultrasound will be done next to check the number of fetuses, their sizes and positions, and to see if there are any obvious obstructions.

CT scans and MRI may also be done if necessary. Other diagnostic tests may include a serum biochemical analysis, complete blood count CBC , blood glucose, and a packed cell volume PCV to check the amount of hemoglobin, hematocrit, and electrolytes.

Treatment of Dystocia in Dogs The treatment depends on what the problem is although in the majority of cases, the veterinarian will end up performing a cesarean section C-section. Abnormal Positioning If there are fetuses in abnormal positions, the veterinarian will first try to manipulate the puppy into the right position.

If that does not work, a C-section will probably be recommended. Large Fetus or Small Birth Canal If the puppy is too large or the birth canal is too small, your veterinarian may try to manipulate the fetus or use lubrication and forceps to help. If this does not work, however, the veterinarian will do a C-section. Lack of Contractions If the contractions have stopped, have not started, or if they are not strong enough to push the puppies out, the veterinarian will most likely administer oxytocin or calcium gluconate with intravenous IV fluids, as well as electrolytes and oxygen.

These medications stimulate the uterine to begin contractions or to make them stronger. Of course, if this does not work, the veterinarian will need to perform a C-section. Recovery of Dystocia in Dogs The veterinarian may want to keep your dog and her puppies for at least 24 hours for observation. If she had a C-section, the stay may be a little longer. Once your dog is able to go home, you need to provide a safe and comfortable place in your home where she can rest.

If she had surgery, you may have to bottle feed the puppies until she has healed enough to nurse. The veterinarian will give you instructions if that is necessary. To prevent this from recurring, the best idea is to get her spayed. However, if you wish to keep breeding her, you should plan a C-section in advance.

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Dystocia in Small Animals

Symptoms of Dystocia in Dogs The symptoms depend on the cause of the dystocia, but the most common are: Labor starts less than 56 days after conception Labor has not started after 70 days Bloody discharge Green or black discharge for several hours without delivering Vomiting Strong contractions for more than an hour without delivering Fetus trapped in the birth canal Straining more than two hours without delivering Longer than five hours between delivering puppies Fever higher than degrees Fahrenheit You will need to explain over the phone what is going on so they can tell you whether you should take care of it yourself or bring her to the clinic. In most cases, the veterinarian will tell you to come in because they are usually against telling untrained people to do procedures over the phone. A physical examination will be done, including abdominal palpation, body temperature, blood pressure, weight, pupil reaction time, reflexes, respiratory rate, pulse, and breath sounds. The veterinarian will also do a thorough examination of the birth canal to check for any obvious signs of the problem. Abdominal radiographs x-rays and an ultrasound will be done next to check the number of fetuses, their sizes and positions, and to see if there are any obvious obstructions.

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Dystocia in Dogs

Dystocia in dogs includes, for example, a stalled labor, a blocked puppy, a malpresentation, etc. Most dog breeders go through their litters, one after the other, without ever having one of their female dogs facing such challenges during the pregnancy, labor, or delivery. Nature generally takes care of everything and dogs manage smaller inconveniences very well on their own. However, it may happen that one day, one of your females is not giving birth to all her puppies as expected, or does it after a struggle. If you are planning to breed dogs , you must be aware of the different types of birthing difficulties in dogs so you can prevent them better, and act promptly if you see some symptoms or signs. What is Canine Dystocia? Canine dystocia means a difficult or abnormal whelping of puppies.

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Birth Difficulties in Dogs

This condition may occur as a result of maternal or fetal factors, and can occur during any stage of the labor. Abnormalities of presentation, posture, and the position of the fetus within the uterus can negatively affect the temporal relationship between the birthing offspring and the maternal birth canal. Uterine inertia inactivity may be primary or secondary. Primary inertia is symptomized by a failure of the body to commence synchronous uterine contractions, and secondary inertia is symptomized by a cessation of uterine contractions due to uterine fatigue.

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Canine Dystocia and Birth Difficulties in Dogs

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